Substâncias fenólicas na cerveja: diversidade estrutural, potencial reativo e relevância para o processo de fabricação e a qualidade da cerveja

Phenolic Substances in Beer: Structural Diversity, Reactive Potential and Relevance for Brewing Process and Beer Quality

Julia Wannenmacher, Martina Gastl, and Thomas Becker

Acesso aberto em Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 17(1-2): 15 June 2018. DOI: 10.1111/1541-4337.12352

Revisão de colegas do Grupo de Tecnologia de Fabricação de Cerveja e Bebidas (Lehrstuhl für Brau- und Getränketechnologie) da Escola de Ciências da Vida, Universidade Técnica de Munique – TUM Weihenstephan, onde é apresentado uma visão geral da composição fenólica na cerveja e matérias-primas. E como podem influenciar a qualidade da cerveja.

Abstract. For the past 100 years, polyphenol research has played a central role in brewing science. The class of phenolic substances comprises simple compounds built of 1 phenolic group as well as monomeric and oligomeric flavonoid compounds. As potential anti‐ or prooxidants, flavor precursors, flavoring agents and as interaction partners with other beer constituents, they influence important beer quality characteristics: flavor, color, colloidal, and flavor stability. The reactive potential of polyphenols is defined by their basic chemical structure, hydroxylation and substitution patterns and degree of polymerization. The quantitative and qualitative profile of phenolic substances in beer is determined by raw material choice. During the malting and brewing process, phenolic compounds undergo changes as they are extracted or enzymatically released, are subjected to heat‐induced chemical reactions or are precipitated with or adsorbed to hot and cold trub, yeast cells and stabilization agents. This review presents the current state of knowledge of the composition of phenolic compounds in beer and brewing raw materials with a special focus on their fate from raw materials throughout the malting and brewing process to the final beer. Due to high‐performance analytical techniques, new insights have been gained on the structure and function of phenolic substance groups, which have hitherto received little attention. This paper presents important information and current studies on the potential of phenolics to interact with other beer constituents and thus influence quality parameters. The structural features which determine the reactive potential of phenolic substances are discussed.

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